Patent Number: 6,165,388

Title: Electrochromic metal oxides

Abstract: Tin oxide doped with an electrochemically effective amount of a metal, e.g., antimony or niobium, which provides a color change when the doped tin oxide is exposed to an electrochemical potential in the presence of mobile ions. Particles of electrochromic doped tin oxide, e.g., coated on a white or pastel pigment substrate, have a contrast ratio greater than 1.2, where contrast ratio is a measure of electrochromic functionality of a material and is the ratio of reflectance of the material in an oxidized state to the color of the material in a reduced state and where color is a photodiode measurement of the value of light reflected off the oxidized or reduced material from a constant source of light shining on the material. Such doped tin oxide-containing particles are useful as electrochromic material in display devices, and may be employed in display devices that advantageously exhibit a linear or nearly linear relationship between stored electrical charge and voltage, and which also exhibit linear or nearly linear optical characteristics as a function of voltage. Electrochromically active materials made from metal oxides and doped with substances other than antimony and niobium have also been found with high contrast ratios. These additional doped materials may be substituted for electrochromically active antimony-doped tin oxide in electrochromic displays.

Inventors: Coleman; James Patrick (Maryland Heights, MO)

Assignee: Monsanto Company

International Classification: C09K 9/00 (20060101); C09K 9/02 (20060101); G02F 1/01 (20060101); G02F 1/15 (20060101); H01B 1/08 (20060101); H01B 001/08 (); G02F 001/153 ()

Expiration Date: 12/26/2017